One of the many factors to consider during year-end tax planning are the new 2019 cost-of-living adjustments from the IRS. Many of the amounts increased to account for inflation, but some remained at 2018 levels.
It is important to note that under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, annual inflation adjustments are now calculated using the chained consumer price index (also known as C-CPI-U). This increases tax bracket thresholds, the standard deduction, certain exemptions and other figures at a slower rate than was the case with the consumer price index previously used, potentially pushing taxpayers into higher tax brackets and making various breaks worth less over time. The law adopts the C-CPI-U on a permanent basis.
Individual income taxes
Tax-bracket thresholds increase for each filing status but, because they’re based on percentages, they increase more significantly for the higher brackets. For example, the top of the 10% bracket increases by $175 to $350, depending on filing status, but the top of the 35% bracket increases by $10,300 to $12,350, again depending on filing status.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) suspended personal exemptions through 2025. However, it nearly doubled the standard deduction, indexed annually for inflation through 2025. For 2019, the standard deduction is $24,400 (married couples filing jointly), $18,350 (heads of households), and $12,200 (singles and married couples filing separately). After 2025, standard deduction amounts are scheduled to drop back to the amounts under pre-TCJA law.
Changes to the standard deduction could help some taxpayers make up for the loss of personal exemptions. But it might not help a lot of taxpayers who typically itemize deductions.
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)
The alternative minimum tax (AMT) is a separate tax system that limits some deductions, doesn’t permit others and treats certain income items differently. If your AMT liability is greater than your regular tax liability, you must pay the AMT.
Like the regular tax brackets, the AMT brackets are annually indexed for inflation. For 2019, the threshold for the 28% bracket increased by $3,700 for all filing statuses except married filing separately, which increased by half that amount.
The AMT exemptions and exemption phaseouts are also indexed. The exemption amounts for 2019 are $71,700 for singles and heads of households and $111,700 for joint filers, increasing by $1,400 and $2,300, respectively, over 2018 amounts. The inflation-adjusted phaseout ranges for 2019 are $510,300–$797,100 (singles and heads of households) and $1,020,600–$1,467,400 (joint filers). Amounts for separate filers are half of those for joint filers.
Education- and child-related breaks
The maximum benefits of various education- and child-related breaks generally remain the same for 2019. But most of these breaks are limited based on a taxpayer’s modified adjusted gross income (MAGI). Taxpayers whose MAGIs are within the applicable phaseout range are eligible for a partial break — and breaks are eliminated for those whose MAGIs exceed the top of the range.
The MAGI phaseout ranges generally remain the same or increase modestly for 2019, depending on the break. For example:
(Note: Married couples filing separately generally aren’t eligible for these credits.)
These are only some of the education- and child-related breaks that may benefit you. Keep in mind that, if your MAGI is too high for you to qualify for a break for your child’s education, your child might be eligible.
Gift and estate taxes
The unified gift and estate tax exemption and the generation-skipping transfer (GST) tax exemption are both adjusted annually for inflation. For 2019, the amount is $11.40 million (up from $11.18 million for 2018).
The annual gift tax exclusion remains at $15,000 for 2019. It’s adjusted only in $1,000 increments, so it typically increases only every few years. It increased to $15,000 in 2018.
Not all of the retirement-plan-related limits increase for 2019. Thus, you may have limited opportunities to increase your retirement savings if you’ve already been contributing the maximum amount allowed:
Your MAGI may reduce or even eliminate your ability to take advantage of IRAs. Fortunately, IRA-related MAGI phaseout range limits all will increase for 2019:
Traditional IRAs: MAGI phaseout ranges apply to the deductibility of contributions if a taxpayer (or his or her spouse) participates in an employer-sponsored retirement plan:
Taxpayers with MAGIs within the applicable range can deduct a partial contribution; those with MAGIs exceeding the applicable range can’t deduct any IRA contribution.
But a taxpayer whose deduction is reduced or eliminated can make nondeductible traditional IRA contributions. The $6,000 contribution limit (plus $1,000 catch-up if applicable and reduced by any Roth IRA contributions) still applies. Nondeductible traditional IRA contributions may be beneficial if your MAGI is also too high for you to contribute (or fully contribute) to a Roth IRA.
Roth IRAs: Whether you participate in an employer-sponsored plan doesn’t affect your ability to contribute to a Roth IRA, but MAGI limits may reduce or eliminate your ability to contribute:
You can make a partial contribution if your MAGI falls within the applicable range, but no contribution if it exceeds the top of the range.
(Note: Married taxpayers filing separately are subject to much lower phaseout ranges for both traditional and Roth IRAs.)
What’s the next step?
With the 2019 cost-of-living adjustment amounts trending higher, you may have an opportunity to realize some tax relief next year. In addition, with many retirement-plan-related limits also increasing, you might be able to boost your retirement savings. If you have questions regarding these new cost-of-living adjustments, please contact a member of your DGC client service team, or Erica Nadeau, CPA, MST at 781-937-5311 / firstname.lastname@example.org or Scott Treacy, CPA at 781-937-5393 / email@example.com.